Rabu, 14 Desember 2016

The History of Audi

Audi's history is one of the most many-faceted stories ever told in the history of the automobile in general. The Audi emblem with its four rings identifies one of Germany's oldest-established automobile manufacturers. It symbolises the amalgamation in 1932 of four previously independent motor-vehicle manufacturers: Audi, DKW, Horch and Wanderer. These companies form the roots of what is today AUDI AG.

The Audi badge – the 'Four Rings' – is the emblem of one of the oldest car manufacturers in Germany.

The History of Audi

On 14 November 1899, August Horch (1868 - 1951) established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne. Here he developed his first car, which was completed at the beginning of 1901. The company moved to Reichenbach in Saxony in March 1902 and converted to a share-issuing company two years later, which involved a further change in location. On 10 May 1904, A. Horch & Cie. Motorwagen-Werke AG was established in Zwickau.

The first Horch car took to the road in 1901: it had a horizontal engine which developed about 4-5 hp. An additional small piston in the engine was designed to absorb the vibrations of the crankshaft. August Horch referred to this as his 'impact-free' engine. Another new feature was the alloy crankcase, a pioneering achievement in car manufacturing.

Following the establishment of the company in Cologne in 1899 and its relocation to Reichenbach in Saxony in 1902, the success of Horch cars made it clear that the factory had to be expanded. On the advice of his business associates, August Horch decided to establish a share-issuing company. New premises were found in Zwickau. Production started in 1904, the beginning of a long tradition of car manufacture in Zwickau.

1906 saw the launch of the 'Sulmobil', a three-wheeled vehicle with a 3.5 hp motorcycle engine. However, the 'Sulmobil' was not a success. As a result, the first 'Original Neckarsulm Motor Car', with a 1308 cc four-cylinder engine and 10 hp, went into production the same year.

In 1904 Jörgen Skafte Rasmussen set up on his own as a manufacturer of boiler fittings. In 1906 he purchased a textile mill in Zschopau, Saxony. Production started there in 1907. During the First World War Rasmussen worked on a steam-driven vehicle ('Dampfkraftwagen'), from which the three letters DKW were derived.

In 1909 August Horch got into a dispute with the supervisory board of A. Horch & Cie. Motorwagen-Werke AG. Horch left the company he had set up. Shortly after, on 16 July 1909, he established a second company, Horch Automobil-Werke GmbH, in the same city. Horch lost the legal dispute over the company name. However, a solution to the problem was found: the Latin translation of his name (the German word for 'hark!'). The new company name, Audiwerke GmbH, became effective on 25 April 1910.

The first Wanderer car with a 5/12 hp four-cylinder engine was test driven in 1912. It went into series production in 1913. This small Wanderer car had not been on the market very long when it became a stage star in the operetta 'Puppchen' (which can be translated loosely as 'darling') by Jean Gilbert. The title song was rather catchy: 'Darling, you are the apple of my eye, darling, I think the world of you.' From then on the little Wanderer was known simply by the name 'Puppchen'.

The International Austrian Alpine Run was one of the most famous races of its time. August Horch took part in an Audi for the first time in 1911 and won first prize. This encouraged him to enter an Audi team in the challenge trophy in the years 1912 to 1914. Audi won the team prize in each of these three years. The Alpine Challenge Trophy was presented to the Audi drivers on 27 June 1914.

1921 Audi introduces left-hand drive
Right-hand drive originated from the age of the horse and carriage, when the coachman sat on the right-hand side. In September 1921 Audi became the first German car manufacturer to present a production car with left-hand drive, the Audi Type K. By giving the driver a better view of oncoming traffic, consequently making overtaking manoeuvres in particular safer, left-hand drive became established by the end of the 1920s.

1922 The Start of DKW motorcycle manufacture
In 1922 the company Zschopauer Motorenwerke started manufacturing its own motorcycles. The sporting successes of the lightweight motorcycles with 2.25 hp two-stroke engine were remarkable. Victories in the Berlin Avus race in 1922 and the triple victory by the DKW team in the ADAC Reichsfahrt the same year made people sit up and take notice. The first DKW motorcycle was consequently called the 'Reichsfahrt'. Over the next six years Zschopauer Motorenwerke/DKW established itself as the world's biggest motorcycle manufacturer.

1926 Horch - the first German eight-cylinder
In 1926 Horchwerke AG of Zwickau presented the Horch 303 Berlin. This was the first German eight-cylinder car to go into volume production. The engine designed by Paul Daimler had double overhead camshafts driven by a vertical shaft. With a displacement of 3132 cc, the engine initially developed an output of 60 horsepower.

1928 Start of DKW car production
Rasmussen finally had access to a powerful engine for the DKW car (600 cc, 15 hp) in the form of the two-cylinder motorcycle unit (1927). The vehicle, which had a load-bearing body covered in imitation leather, had rear-wheel drive. It was produced in the Spandau district of Berlin from 1928.

1931 The first volume-built car with front-wheel drive
In August 1928 J. S. Rasmussen acquired the majority of shares in Audiwerke AG. He had the DKW small car with front-wheel drive produced in large numbers at this company in Zwickau from 1931. This car also had a wooden body covered in imitation leather and the typical DKW two-stroke engine. This design formed the basis for one of the most successful German small cars of the 1930s, over 250,000 of which left the Zwickau plant up to 1942.

1932 Auto Union AG is established
On 29th June 1932, the four Saxon motor-vehicle brands Audi, DKW, Horch and Wanderer joined forces to create Auto Union AG, which had its head office in Chemnitz. The new company group was consequently able to serve all market segments, from light motorcycles to luxury saloon cars.

The first Audi with front-wheel drive
At the 1933 Berlin Motor Show, Auto Union AG presented the new Audi, its first standard-size passenger car with front-wheel drive. The company used a kind of modular design principle for the first time and the Wanderer six-cylinder engine.

1934 The Auto Union grand prix racing cars
The new Auto Union received its greatest popularity boost with the success of a racing car design that was based on plans by Ferdinand Porsche. The sixteen-cylinder engine was installed behind the driver which had a very beneficial effect on the vehicle's aerodynamics.

1936 A new head office in Chemnitz
In 1936 the group management of Auto Union, which had previously directed the company from Zschopau, moved into its new main office building in Chemnitz. In the same year, central facilities for design, development and testing were set up in Chemnitz.

1937 Speed records in the Streamliner racing
The Auto Union racing cars were high-tech products in their time. They stood for supreme achievements in motor-vehicle construction that concentrated above all on high-performance engines, aerodynamic design and the systematic use of lightweight construction. The Auto Union car with streamlined fairing and an output of 545 horsepower was the first to exceed a speed of 400 km/h on a normal road.

The First crash and rollover tests
From 1938 Auto Union AG carried out systematic rollover and crash tests, one of the first manufacturers in the motor-vehicle industry to do so. Various DKW models with sheet-metal, wooden and plastic bodyshells were tested in order to examine the various ways in which these bodies behave in a rollover.

1941 Armaments production
With the development and production of special vehicles for military purposes, Auto Union became an important supplier of vehicles to the armed forces in the mid-1930s. Following the outbreak of war, civilian production was interrupted in May 1940. After this, the company produced exclusively for military purposes.

1948 Dismantlement and expropriation
On the orders of the Soviet military administration in Germany, the Saxon plants of Auto Union were dismantled in 1945 as reparations. Following this, the company's entire assets were expropriated without compensation. On 17 August 1948 Auto Union AG of Chemnitz was deleted from the Commercial Register.

1949 A new start in Ingolstadt Auto Union GmbH
Loans from the Bavarian state government and Marshall Plan aid helped a new car manufacturing plant to be set up in Ingolstadt. Auto Union GmbH was established in Ingolstadt on 3 September 1949. Based on established DKW principles – front-wheel drive and two-stroke engine - production of a small but sturdy 125 cc motorcycle and a DKW delivery van started the same year.

1950 The first DKW passenger car after the war
In August 1950 Auto Union produced its first post-war passenger car. This was the DKW Meisterklasse F 89 P, and was available as a saloon and a four-seater Karmann convertible. Since the facilities in Ingolstadt were not adequate for the production of this model, Auto Union used the premises of the company Rhein-metall-Borsig AG in Düsseldorf. DKW vehicles were built there until the end of 1961.

1951 NSU motorcycle sets world record
As early as 1945, a modest number of motorcycles were built again at NSU in Neckarsulm. Within just a few years the plant developed to become one of the most important manufacturers in this sector. NSU motorcycles were state of the art. On 12 April 1951 the motorcycle racer Wilhelm Herz succeeded in setting a new world record on a section of the Munich-Ingolstadt autobahn by reaching a speed of 290 km/h on a supercharged 500 cc NSU racing motorcycle.

1953 DKW 'Sonderklasse' with three-cylinder
Auto Union launched a new three-cylinder model in time for the 1953 German Motor Show. This went by the name of '3=6 Sonderklasse'. It was developed before the war in Chemnitz and was supposed to go into volume production in 1940. The name 3=6 referred to the fact that a three-cylinder two-stroke engine had the power characteristic of a six-cylinder four-stroke engine thanks to twice the number of combustion cycles.

1955 NSU is the world's biggest cycle manufacturer
In 1955, NSU Werke AG in Neckarsulm proudly announced a total production volume of 342,583 two-wheeled vehicles (including 45,747 bicycles). This made NSU the world's leading manufacturer of two-wheelers. At the same time, motorcycle euphoria had reached its climax. As their wealth increased, customers became more and more demanding about their personal mode of transport. The car became the new people's dream in the economic miracle years.

1957 NSU returns to car manufacturing
Following an absence of almost thirty years, NSU returned to car manufacturing in 1957. The company deliberately opted for a small car, designed for average earners and motorcycle owners. The NSU Prinz was unveiled at the 1957 German Motor Show and, from this date on, started to offset the losses on the collapsing motorcycle market.

1958 Daimler-Benz takes over Auto Union GmbH
At the instigation of leading entrepreneur Friedrich Karl Flick, Daimler-Benz AG acquired the majority of and, subsequently, the remaining shares in Auto Union GmbH on 24 April 1958. From this date until the end of 1965, Auto Union was a fully owned subsidiary of the Stuttgart-based Daimler Group.

1959 The start of the new plant in Ingolstadt
With Auto Union having stopped all motorcycle production activities in autumn 1958, its new car plant in Ingolstadt went into operation in the summer of 1959. This was one of the most modern production facilities in Europe. In 1962 the Auto Union plant in Düsseldorf was sold to Daimler-Benz.

1963 The NSU Prinz is the sensation at the IAA
The open-top two-seater on the NSU stand at the 1963 Frankfurt Motor Show was a sensation. Known as the Wankel Spider, this small two-seater had a single-rotor rotary piston engine at the rear. NSU had been working together with Felix Wankel on a new engine concept since the beginning of the 1950s: instead of a reciprocating piston, a rotor compressed the fuel/air mixture (rotary piston engine).

1964 VW takes over Auto Union GmbH
Once again at the instigation of leading industrialist Friedrich Karl Flick, Volkswagenwerk AG acquired the majority of shares in Auto Union GmbH in December 1964. The Ingolstadt-based company became a fully owned VW subsidiary from the end of 1966.

1965 The name Auid is reborn
All work on the two-stroke engine came to an end when Auto Union became part of the Volkswagen Group. A four-cylinder four-stroke engine developed previously under Daimler-Benz - known as the 'medium-pressure' engine - was installed in the last DKW model F 102 and presented as an Audi in the summer of 1965.

1967 NSU presents the Ro 80
In September 1967, NSU presented a completely new model in the upper mid-size category, the NSU Ro 80. Its outstanding feature was a 115 bhp twin-rotor rotary piston engine. Its modern body was ahead of its time and featured styling elements that only became the norm in body design several years later. The NSU caused a major sensation, but was unable to help the Wankel principle make the breakthrough hoped for.

1968 The Audi 100 is launched
On 26 November 1968, Auto Union invited dealers and the press to attend the presentation of the newly designed Audi 100 at the Ingolstadt City Theatre. This model, developed by technical director Dr. Ludwig Kraus, took Audi into the competitive market segment of the upper mid-size class for the first time. The Audi 100 quickly became a bestseller and formed the basis for a new Audi model series that ensured the future independence of the Audi brand.

1969 Audi NSU Auto Union AG
In March 1969, NSU Motorenwerke AG, which had just been taken over by VW, and the Ingolstadt-based Auto Union GmbH merged to form Audi NSU Auto Union AG, which had its head office in Neckarsulm.

The Audi 80 is launched
In the summer of 1972, the chairman of technical engineering Dr. Ludwig Kraus presented the Audi 80, the continuation of the model policy started with the Audi 100. This car used a four-cylinder OHC engine which was later also adopted by the Volkswagen Group, ultimately becoming the engine with the highest production volume at VW. The Audi 80 was a smash hit. Over a million of this model were built and sold within six years.

1974 Audi 50 - the answer to the oil crisis
September 1974 saw the launch of the Audi 50, the smallest car in the Audi model range and Audi's answer to the energy crisis of the early 1970s. Since this was planned as a high-volume model from the outset, the small Audi was built at VW in Wolfsburg. Six months after the appearance of the Audi 50, this model was also launched on the market as the VW Polo.

1980 Audi quattro - a revolutionary drive concept
In March 1980, a four-wheel-drive sports coupé caused a genuine sensation on the Audi stand at the Geneva Motor Show. The Audi quattro was the first high-performance vehicle with four-wheel drive. This drive concept had previously only been used on trucks and off-road vehicles. The permanent four-wheel-drive system in the Audi quattro enjoyed worldwide success in motor sport and gradually found its way into the entire Audi model range.

1982 Audi 100 - the aerodynamics world champion
In autumn 1982, Audi NSU Auto Union AG presented the third-generation Audi 100 (known internally as C3). Thanks to lightweight construction throughout and, above all, the car's low drag coefficient of cD = 0.30, the new Audi 100 was synonymous with progressive design. In the words of the German publication Auto-Zeitung, 'in terms of aerodynamics, the new Audi 100 outclasses the rest of the automotive world.'

Audi NSU Auto Union AG becomes AUDI AG
When production of the Ro 80 was discontinued in 1977, the use of the name NSU as a product designation also came to an end. With effect from 1 January 1985, Audi NSU Auto Union AG was renamed AUDI AG. At the same time the company moved its head office from Neckarsulm to Ingolstadt. From this time on, products and the company had the same name.

1986 Fully galvanised: the third-generation Audi 80
In autumn 1986, AUDI AG presented the third generation of the Audi 80, known internally as the B3. As with the Audi 100/200 model range the year before, the Audi 80 was now also given a fully galvanised body with a ten year warranty against rust penetration. With a drag coefficient of 0.29, the Audi 80 displayed excellent aerodynamics.

1988 Audi V8: the move into the premium class
In 1988 AUDI AG ventured into the premium class for the first time with the launch of the Audi V8. This new model was fitted with a 184 kW (250 bhp) 3.6-litre eight-cylinder alloy engine. Technical details included permanent four-wheel drive, four valves per cylinder and a four-speed, electronically controlled automatic transmission.

1989 Audi turbodiesel with direct injection
After over 13 years in development, Audi engineers succeeded in cultivating diesel direct injection, which had previously only been used on trucks, for car diesel engines as well. In conjunction with a turbocharger, it was also possible to achieve an extremely low-loss combustion process which resulted in very economical fuel consumption. In the autumn of 1989, the Audi 100 was presented at the Frankfurt Motor Show with a 2.5-litre five-cylinder TDI engine.

1991 Audi quattro Spyder and Audi Avus quattro
Audi presented two sensational sports car studies in the autumn of 1991: the Audi quattro Spyder at the Frankfurt Motor Show and the Audi Avus quattro at the Tokyo Motor Show. The consistent use of aluminium for the bodyshells of these two model studies made reference to the future use of lightweight construction in volume production at Audi.

1993 Cars shed weight: the AUDI Space Frame
For some years AUDI AG had been working together with the Aluminum Company of America on the development of a lightweight aluminium production car. The result was presented at the 1993 Frankfurt Motor Show: the aluminium study known as the Audi Space Frame. The body used new design principles: extruded aluminium sections connected together by diecast nodes form a frame structure into which aluminium panels are integrated, where they have a load-bearing function.

1994 New name, new material: the Audi A8
In March 1994, AUDI AG presented its new model in the premium segment, the Audi A8, at the Geneva Motor Show. This was the first production model with all-aluminium body. At the same time a new naming process was introduced for the Audi models. From then on the Audi 80 was known as the A4, the Audi 100 was called the A6. They were followed in 1996 by the Audi A3, the first representative of the compact class. Production of the Audi A2, the first volume-built aluminium car, commenced in June 2000.


Selasa, 08 Desember 2015

The History of Scuderia Ferrari F1 Team

Scuderia Ferrari is the name for the Gestione Sportiva, a division of the Ferrari car manufacturer which is engaged in car racing, particularly Formula One. Besides in that field, Scuderia Ferrari and Ferrari Corse also serve the needs of its customers for the car category of the highway. Scuderia Ferrari is Italian for "Ferrari Stable", or better known in English is widely: "Team Ferrari." This racing team (along with car manufacturers for the category of road) is a subsidiary of Fiat Group, which also oversees motorcycle manufacturer Ducati, Juventus football club, and car manufacturer Maserati.

First time competing in the Ferrari F1 1948 season with their first F1 car, Tipo 125 F1. This makes the Ferrari to the oldest and most successful team competing in the pole competition. Their current drivers who will go down for the full 2010 season was Fernando Alonso and Felipe Massa. Ferrari is the boom in 2000-2004 which was then reinforced by the German F1 legend alive, Michael "Schumi" Schumacher.


Ferrari President Luca Cordero is currently di Montezemolo, with CEO Jean Todt, team principal Stefano Domenicali, who is the brother of the Ducati MotoGP team principal, Claudio Domenicali. Team's technical director Aldo Costa is held by. This team was dubbed the "Prancing Horse team," and in Italy, this team is like a religion, that is not looking feathers where they came from, whether from Rome, Milan, or Turin, all only one objective: victory for Ferrari.


The History of Scuderia Ferrari F1 Team

Scuderia Ferrari was founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1929 as a sponsor for a few amateur drivers in various races. Enzo himself, who is also a driver at the time it uses as a tool balapannya Fiat. This idea comes at night on 16 November in Bologna, when Enzo eating dinner with her two brothers, Augusto and Alfredo Caniato, and racer Mario Tadini. They then build a team with Alfa Romeo where Enzo continue to race until he named his son Dino was born in 1932.

Ferrari Enzo then become a manager for some of the drivers and also the search of new seeds of young drivers from his office in Viale Trento e Trieste, of Modena, Italy, until 1938, when the Alfa Romeo decided to withdraw Enzo racing career as a manager for the division, called Alfa Corse. In 1939 Alfa Enzo out of her racing career and then he founded the company called Auto Avio Costruzioni Ferrari, with tools he used to get from him an agreement with Alfa, where he could get the remnants of Alfa Romeo cars that do not follow racing.

In addition to signing a contract with Alfa, Ferrari is also working to enlarge his own racing team, where Enzo and then designing the Tipo 815 (V8 1500cc) with Alberto Massimino, who later this car was known as the first Ferrari car. But after Alberto Ascari and Marchese Lotario Rangoni Machiavelli in Modena drove in the Mille Miglia event in 1940, World War II cut all racing activities, and the 815 car was forced to recess. Ferrari then changed direction to produce the tools racing car parts, and in 1943 Enzo moved his headquarters to Maranello, where in 1944 where WWII bombs have time to fall.

Regulations for the Grand Prix World Championship has changed since the war ended. And this makes the Ferrari should make another new car, which was then called the Tipo 125 (V12, 1500cc), who then managed to win some races. This car debuted at the 1948 Italian Grand Prix with driver Raymond Sommer, and his first victory at the Circuito in Garda with Giuseppe Farina.

About the team


Ferrari logo is named (in Italian) "Cavallino rampante" (aka rampant little horse), which is a male horse was prancing in the yellow area. This logo Enzo Ferrari reportedly taken from the official logo of the German city of Stuttgart, which is the former home of the Porsche could be eternal rivals Ferrari. Picture a horse that appears in the logo of Ferrari are characteristic of Francesco Baracca, a World War I pilot who was killed in that war. Baracca's mother then gave the horse picture on the Enzo after Baracca died. Enzo then immortalize it as the logo for the team racing, with added a yellow shield area, which is the typical color of the city of Modena, with the letters S and F which indicate the initials of Scuderia Ferrari. Rampate himself in Italian means the toughness of the lions and horses. Symbol of strength, vitality, and energy.


Scuderia Ferrari team based in the town of Maranello, Italy, 18km from the town of Modena, next to a road car manufacturer rayanya. Enzo Ferrari was born in this city, and spent his teenage years in the city. Besides the headquarters in Maranello, Ferrari also has a private test circuit, Fiorano is built since 1972, and until now still used as a good place to test cars for street or race car. Modena itself is a city in Emilia-Romagna region in Italy.

Racing Italian Grand Prix at the Monza circuit, Milano is a racing stable for the Ferrari team, every time the races were held there, all the Ferrari fans from all over the dating meets Italian circuit, and they often make fans of other teams fear or be involved in riots like football supporters with various actions and acts of fanaticism that is not his equal in other countries.

Apart from Monza, Ferrari's Mugello circuit also has the full (which is currently used as the venue for the Italian MotoGP race), and the circuit Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari (Imola) near the city of Bologna (Ducati headquarters), which had hosted the San Marino Grand Prix until the year 2005. Both circuits were often used as a place to test Ferrari F1 car for their personal.


Since 1950 until early 1977, the Ferrari F1 car at all plain, aka not met the sponsor logo. 1977 into the early winter season in the history of Ferrari's sponsorship, where they were when it was sponsored by the Fiat Group (which has become the owner of Ferrari since 1969). Until the 1980s, only Magneti Marelli and Agip are loyal to sponsors Ferrari, rose only in a limited supply of technical equipment and fuel suppliers.

One thing interesting companies in the Ferrari F1 car (or become a sponsor of Ferrari) will also be found in the body of a Ducati MotoGP bike, both because this team is still one parent is from FIAT Group, a funny thing even became the main sponsors of the Yamaha MotoGP team.

Main Sponsor

Ferrari team was first sponsored by the Marlboro cigarette brand since the 1984 season, which also became the sponsor for the Marlboro McLaren team. Marlboro officially became the main sponsor Ferrari from 1997 season. In late 2005, Ferrari announced that they have extended the sponsorship contract with Marlboro (Philip Morris) until the 2011 season. At that moment, banning all forms of smelling cigarette sponsorship was applied across Europe, and several F1 teams decided to end their sponsorship contracts with cigarette manufacturers (as with West McLaren and Renault with Mild Seven). It is estimated that every year, Ferrari get a fresh injection of funds amounting to one billion dollars from Marlboro.

Although officially a contract with Marlboro will expire in 2011, Ferrari has now managed to get another sponsor, no less magnitude. Starting in 2010 seiiring seat Fernando Alonso in the drivers seat, Grupo Santander will become the second major sponsor of Ferrari after Marlboro. Agreement and Santander's Ferrari contract runs for five musim.Setiap year, Ferrari will get the funds amounting to nearly 40 million dollars.

In December 2005, Vodafone announced that they will cease to be a sponsor of Ferrari as tempted by the offer to be the main sponsor of McLaren from 2007. The core of the withdrawal of Vodafone as the sponsor of the Ferrari is because more privileging Ferrari Marlboro as the main sponsor of land multiplied by their stickers on mobil.Sebagai replacement Vodafone, Ferrari and then announced that Alice would be a sponsor of Ferrari started the season in 2007.

Other Sponsors

Other companies are also currently a sponsor of Ferrari, among others: Shell - Royal Dutch / Shell Group, Bridgestone, Acer, Etihad Airways, and several others include Mubadala Development Company (an investment company which is also the home of Abu Dhabi has a 5% stake in Ferrari since 2007). As part of the deal with Acer, Acer Ferrari and then allowed to launch a package of desktop PCs and laptops with the official logo of Ferrari. The Company's second largest computer processor world, AMD is also a sponsor of Ferrari, and then they work with Acer to launch a series of designs using a laptop with Ferrari logo.

In addition to sponsorship, Ferrari also has several official suppliers, namely: Magneti Marelli, OMR, SKF, Europcar, Iveco, NGK, Puma, Tata Consultancy Services, Brembo, BBS Kraftfahrzeugtechnik AG, SELEX Communications, Technogym, Schuberth and Microsoft.


Kamis, 25 Desember 2014

The History of the Shaolin Temple

The history of the Shaolin Temple is really as much the annals of an idea as it may be the history of a building and its own occupants. It's a concept that your current abbot, Shi Yong Xin, has recently been attempting to reclaim. In 1994 he authorized "Shaolin" and "Shaolin Temple" as trademarks and setup a company to manage the intellectual real estate rights. Indeed in contemporary days the temple has aggressively defended its copyright and its own image.

The Olympic chief, Jacques Rogge, and other VIP's are  just some of the foreign dignitaries who've made official visits to the monastery. However, it only in recent times that the Shaolin Temple, in Henan province in southern China, has liked this type of official status. In the 1980s the Chinese federal government restored the monastery and started to celebrate this symbol of its heritage. It is perhaps fair to say that the temple owed its revival to the impact of popular culture. Plane Li's 1982 film, known as the "Shaolin Temple", was shot on location and its great achievement helped to pass on the name. The Seventies experienced already noticed Bruce Lee and the television series "Kung Fu" stamp the legend of Shaolin into popular consciousness.

Story of Bodhidharma

The History of the Shaolin Temple

Bodhidharma, or Da Mo, is said to have already been an Indian prince who also became a Buddhist monk and travelled to the Shaolin Temple in 527 AD. Among the legends associated with this personality are that he crossed the Yangtze river on a reed (or small boat) and meditated in a cave for nine years before entering the monastery. The cave is certainly a venerated site close to the temple even today. He's reputed to have discovered the monks to become too poor to practise mediation and so, to keep them solid, taught them external exercises, known as Eighteen Lohan Hands, and trained them internal forms, referred to as the Common of Sinew Metamorphoses, to keep them healthy.

Shaolin monks and disciples follow a unique practice among Buddhists in that they greet one another only using their right hands. This greeting is a tradition which dates back to Da Mo and his disciple, Hui Ke.

In 495 AD, the Indian monk Ba Tuo, or Buddhabhadra, found China teaching a kind of Buddhism referred to as Xiao Sheng Buddhism. He was given land at the feet of Shaoshi mountain by Emperor Shao Wen and founded the Shaolin Temple upon this land.

Around enough time that Ba Tuo was founding the Shaolin Temple there was an Indian prince named Bodhidharma. Bodhidharma was very smart and was the favorite boy of the king of an area that is now component of southern India. Bodhidharma got two old brothers who feared that their father, the king, would move them over and bequeath the kingship to Bodhidharma. Within their jealousy, both older brothers often disparaged Bodhidharma while speaking with their father, hoping to turn him against their young brother. The old brothers also attempted to assassinate Bodhidharma but Bodhidharma acquired very good karma and so the tries were not effective. Despite getting the favorite child of the king, Bodhidharma recognized that he had not been interested in a lifestyle of politics. He chose rather to review with the famous Buddhist grasp Prajnatara and be a Buddhist monk.

Bodhidharma trained with his get better at for several years. 1 day he asked his grasp, “Expert, when you pass away, where must i go? What should I do?” His master replied that he is going to Zhen Dan, which was the name for China in those days. Years later on, Bodhidharma’s get better at passed away and Bodhidharma ready to keep for China.

During the a long time that Bodhidharma had studied as a monk, one of his older brothers experienced become king of India and that older brother’s son got become king after him. The king of India was very fond of his uncle and wished to make amends for the activities which Bodhidharma’s older brothers had taken against him. He asked Bodhidharma to stay near the capital, where he could safeguard and look after him, but Bodhidharma understood that he must go to China as his expert had said.

Since Bodhidharma would not stay, the king of India ordered that carrier pigeons end up being sent to China with messages requesting the people of China to look after Bodhidharma. These messages made Bodhidharma famous among many Chinese who wondered what was so special about this particular Buddhist monk that the king of India would make such a demand.

In 527 AD, 32 years after Ba Tuo’s founding of the Shaolin temple, Bodhidharma crossed through Guangdong province into China. In China, he was known as Da Mo. Da Mo arrived in China practicing Da Sheng (Mahayana) Buddhism. When Da Mo arrived, he was greeted by a big crowd of individuals who experienced heard of the popular Buddhist expert and wanted to hear him speak. Instead of speak, Da Mo sat down and started meditating. He meditated for many hours. Upon completing his meditation, Da Mo rose and walked away, saying nothing.

His activities had a profound effect upon his viewers. Some individuals laughed, some cried, some had been angry and some nodded their heads in understanding. Whatever the emotion, everyone in the audience had a reaction.

This incident made Da Mo even more famous, so famous that Emperor Wu heard about him. Emperor Wu, who ruled over the southern kingdom of China, invited Da Mo to come quickly to his palace. When Da Mo arrived, Emperor Wu talked with Da Mo about Buddhism. The emperor acquired erected many statues and temples devoted to Buddhism. He had given much prosperity to Buddhist temples. In talking of his accomplishments, Emperor Wu asked Da Mo if his actions were good. Da Mo replied that these were not. This response amazed Emperor Wu, but they continued talking and eventually Emperor Wu asked Da Mo if there is Buddha nowadays. Da Mo replied that there was not.

Da Mo’s replies were a reflection of Emperor Wu. By requesting if his actions were good, Emperor Wu was looking for compliments and affirmation from Da Mo. Da Mo denied that Emperor Wu’s actions were good since it is the duty of the emperor to care for his people. Rather than seeking compliments, Emperor Wu should have been content to greatly help his people through Buddha. Likewise, if one asks if there is Buddha in the globe, then one has recently answered the issue: Buddha is a matter of faith, you either have confidence in your heart or you don't. In questioning the living of Buddha, Emperor Wu acquired demonstrated too little faith.

Da Mo’s answers enraged Emperor Wu and he ordered Da Mo to keep his palace and never return. Da Mo just smiled, switched and left.

Da Mo continued his trip, heading north, when he reached the city of Nanjing. In the town of Nanjing, there is a popular place called the Flower Rain Pavillion where many people gathered to speak and relax. There was a big crowd of people collected in the Flower Rain Pavillion around a Buddhist monk, who was simply lecturing. This Buddhist monk was called Shen Guang.

Shen Guang had at one time been a famous general. He previously killed many people in battle but 1 day understood that the people he had been killing experienced friends and family and that one day someone might come and eliminate him. This changed him and he made a decision to train as a Buddhist monk. Ultimately, Shen Guang became an excellent loudspeaker on Buddhism. As Da Mo neared the audience, he paid attention to Shen Guang’s speech. Occasionally Shen Guang would speak and Da Mo would nod his mind, as though in agreement. Occasionally Shen Guang would speak and Da Mo would shake his mind, as if in disagreement. As this continuing, Shen Guang became extremely angry at the unusual foreign monk who dared to disagree with him before this audience. In anger, Shen Guang required the Buddhist beads from around his throat and flicked them at Da Mo. The beads struck Da Mo in his encounter, knocking out two of his front tooth. Da Mo instantly began bleeding. Shen Guang anticipated a confrontation; rather, Da Mo smiled, turned and walked away.

This reaction astounded Shen Guang, who started following after Da Mo.

Da Mo continued north until he reached the Yangzi river. Seated by the river there was an old female with a big bundle of reeds next to her. Da Mo walked up to the previous woman and asked her if he could possess a reed. She replied that he could. Da Mo got an individual reed, positioned it upon the top of Yangzi river and stepped onto the reed. He was carried across the Yangzi river by the power of his chi. Viewing this, Shen Guang ran up to where in fact the old girl sat and grabbed a handful of reeds without asking. He threw the reeds onto the Yangzi river and stepped onto them. The reeds sank beneath him and Shen Guang began drowning. The older woman saw his plight and required pity on Shen Guang, pulling him from the river. As Shen Guang lay on the floor coughing up river drinking water, the old girl admonished him. She said that by not really asking for her reeds before acquiring them, he previously shown her disrespect and that by disrespecting her, Shen Guang experienced disrespected himself. The old woman also informed Shen Guang that he had been searching for a grasp and that Da Mo, the man he was following, was that master. As she stated this, the reeds which experienced sunk beneath Shen Guang rose once again to the top of river and Shen Guang found himself on the reeds being carried across the Yangzi river. He reached the additional aspect and continued following after Da Mo.

There are several people who think that the old woman by the river was a Boddhisatva who was simply helping Shen Guang to get rid of the cycle of his samsara.

At this point, Da Mo was nearing the location of the Shaolin Temple. The Shaolin monks had heard about his approach and were collected to meet up him. When Da Mo arrived, the Shaolin monks greeted him and invited him to come stay at the temple. Da Mo did not reply but he visited a cave on a mountain behind the Shaolin Temple, sat down, and started meditating. Before the Shaolin Temple, there are five mountains: Bell Mountain, Drum Mountain, Sword Mountain, Stamp Mountain and Flag Mountain. These mountains are called after the objects which their shape resembles. Behind the Shaolin Temple there are five “Breasts Mountains” which are formed like breasts. The cave where Da Mo chose to meditate was using one of the Breasts Mountains.

Damo in cave in Shaolin TempleDa Mo sat facing a wall in the cave and meditated for 9 years. During these nine years, Shen Guang stayed outside Da Mo’s cave and acted as a bodyguard for Da Mo, making certain no harm found Da Mo. Periodically Shen Guang would talk to Da Mo to instruct him, but Da Mo never responded to Shen Guang’s requests. During these nine years the Shaolin monks would also periodically invite Da Mo to drop to the Temple, where he would be more comfy, but Da Mo under no circumstances responded. Over time, Da Mo’s focus became so intense that his picture was engraved in to the stone of the wall before him.

Towards the finish of the nine years, the Shaolin monks decided that they must take action more for Da Mo and so they made a particular area for him. They called this room the Da Mo Ting. When this space was completed by the end of the nine years, the Shaolin monks invited Da Mo to arrive stay in the room. Da Mo did not react but he stood up, walked down to the area, sat down, and instantly started meditating. Shen Guang implemented Da Mo to the Shaolin temple and stood guard outside Da Mo’s room. Da Mo meditated in his space for another four years. Shen Guang would sometimes request Da Mo to teach him, but Da Mo by no means responded.

By the end of the four-year period Shen Guang had been following Da Mo for thirteen years, but Da Mo had hardly ever stated anything to Shen Guang. It was winter when the four-calendar year period was ending and Shen Guang was standing up in the snow beyond your screen to Da Mo’s room. He was frosty and became very angry. He picked up a huge block of snow and ice and hurled it into Da Mo’s space. The snow and ice made a noisy noise as it broke inside Da Mo’s space. This noise awoke Da Mo from his meditation and he viewed Shen Guang. In anger and frustration Shen Guang demanded to know when Da Mo would train him.

Da Mo responded that he'd teach Shen Guang when crimson snow fell from the sky.
Hearing this, something inside Shen Guang’s center changed and he took the sword he carried from his belt and take off his still left arm. He kept the severed arm above his head and whirled it around. The blood from the arm froze in the frosty surroundings and fell like red snow. Seeing this, Da Mo agreed to teach Shen Guang.

Da Mo took a monk’s spade and went with Shen Guang to the Drum Mountain in front of Shaolin Temple. The Drum Mountain is indeed called because it is quite flat at the top. Da Mo’s unspoken message to Shen Guang was that Shen Guang should flatten his center, similar to the surface of the Drum Mountain. Upon this Drum Mountain Da Mo dug a well. The water of the well was bitter. Da Mo after that left Shen Guang on the Drum Mountain. For a whole calendar year, Shen Guang utilized the bitter water of the well to look after most of his requirements. He utilized it to cook, to clean, to bathe, to do everything. At the end of the first 12 months, Shen Guang transpired to Da Mo and once again asked Da Mo to instruct him. Da Mo came back with Shen Guang to the Drum Mountain and dug a second well. The drinking water of this well was spicy. For a whole year, Shen Guang utilized the spicy water for most of his requirements. At the end of the next yr, Shen Guang went back down to Da Mo and asked again to be trained. Da Mo dug a third well on the Drum Mountain. The drinking water of this third well was sour. For the third season, Shen Guang used the sour drinking water for all of his needs. By the end of the third 12 months, Shen Guang came back to Da Mo and agains asked to become taught. Da Mo returned to the Drum Mountain and dug a 4th and final well. The drinking water of the well was lovely. At this stage, Shen Guang understood that the four wells represented his lifestyle. Just like the wells, his life would occasionally be bitter, occasionally sour, sometimes spicy and occasionally sweet. Each one of these phases in his lifestyle was equally gorgeous and necessary, just as each of the four seasons of the year is gorgeous and required in its own way. Without really saying many phrases to Shen Guang, Da Mo got taught Shen Guang the most important of lessons in a mind-to-mind, heart-to-heart fashion. This mind-to- mind, heart-to-heart conversation is called “action language” and is the foundation of the Chan Buddhism which Da Mo started at the Shaolin Temple.

After his realization, Shen Guang was presented with the name Hui Ke and he became abbot of the Shaolin temple after Da Mo.

To pay respect for the sacrifice which Hui Ke produced, disciples and monks of the Shaolin Temple greet one another only using their right hands.

Until its modern renaissance, the golden age of the monastery has been thought to have been through the Tang dynasty (618-907 AD). Thirteen warrior monks assisted the emperor and because of this Shaolin was designated as the "Supreme Temple". Much of the annals of the monastery is usually intertwined using its myth. The Shaolin Temple provides been hailed as the cradle of the martial arts, often by its teachers. This could just be a way of describing an excellent institution, rather than the more implausible declare that it originated kung fu or organised martial schools.

The Shaolin Temple is said to have already been founded earlier, in 495 AD, by another Buddhist monk, Ba Tuo, with the support of the Emperor of the Northern Wei Dynasty. Situated at the Track Mountain, the Central Sacred Mountain, the temple was frequented by generals and Emperors. Chances are that retired soldiers were among the monks in the temple. It really is probable that martial arts were known and also practised at the temple throughout its background. But the unique aspect of Shaolin culture is the combination of martial training with Chan (the Chinese equivalent of Zen) Buddhism. The art of fight was sublimated into the monks spiritual advancement. This violence is normally captured in a moral framework. The monks cannot kill or use particular forbidden methods. The skill is certainly refined and working out becomes section of the practitioner's progress into the Chan discipline.